Christ and Buddha

Jodo Shinshu Buddhism: A Christian Encounter

The Comforts of Home ~ Entering the Temple

Buddhist TempleDriving over to the Calgary Jodo Shinshu Buddhist Temple[1] I wasn’t quite sure what I would encounter. I knew that Buddhism has many different expressions and I wasn’t sure whether this community would be a full cultural emersion into eastern practices or if it would be a blend of eastern and western philosophies.

Arriving, I quickly noticed that it had recently been renovated and was very architecturally appealing. Later I would get to speak with one of the elder members of the temple who explained that the house was actually 100 years old and had only recently been renovated into the temple that it now is. There was a ramp that allowed access as I wheeled up to a wooden covered front entrance way and a wide front door which a kind lady greeted me at and held open for me to enter.

With a small front foyer entrance, there was a place to hang our coats with a staircase off to the right. It was explained to me that they often host lunches and community events in the lower basement. They had an elevator off to the other side but, I didn’t go down as the service was about to begin.

Inside the worship area at the back was a partitioned area where you could place your shoes and grab a “liturgical” book with chants and teachings. At the center of the patrician was about a 3’ high statue of Buddha wearing a rather bowl shaped hat that covered his eyes. While access was challenging due to the restrictions of my chair, I began to clearly recognize the Japanese influences on the interior decorations. Having spent many years training in a Japanese Aikido Dojo, it was an environment very familiar to me and I felt comfortable knowing my way around.

Ken, the assistant sensei, greeted me and guided my way around to a side entrance while he pulled a chair away to make space for me to sit in the main worship area. Looking to the front I could see an altar with another standing gold Buddha that had its hand extended out. Above it was hanging a golden chandelier of sorts that later was explained to me to be symbolic of a “heaven” of sorts or “nirvana” to which Buddha resides just beneath. Before the Buddha on the altar were two candles and a red apple that was placed on a gold stand (later I’ll share more on the apple). There were then two chairs and knee high Japanese tables in front of them to which the sensei’s James and Ken would sit following their entrance.

It was a cozy space and with about 20 of us in the hall, we could easily see and hear everything that was going on and enter the discussions during Ken’s teaching time. Without the formalities and pomp, you might say it was a Buddhist House Church!

Meditation, Chanting, and Teachings ~ The Harmonization of Communal Homage

Buddhist AltarWith the ringing of a bell, the two sensei’s (James and Ken) entered from behind the altar and briefly bowed towards the east side of the altar. Sitting down facing each other from either side of the altar they had us sit in silence for a few minutes for meditative reflection and then clasped their hands together in a prayerful manner and bowed again to the Buddha on the altar reciting a liturgy of respect along with the same actions by the rest of the congregation.

Ken stood up and introduced himself as James’s assistant and welcomed everyone. To be honest, I found it hard to find the authenticity in some of this experience as in my past practices of the Aikido Hombu Dojo, I was used to being around Japanese senseis that also spoke in Japanese as well. As James and Ken were not ethnically from Japan and were white westerners, it felt odd to me. In any case, Ken then had us turn the liturgy book to the homage for the ‘Three Treasure’.[2] It was all written in English and the congregation read the homage aloud.

Following the first homage, the congregation then read through the ‘Noble Eight-fold Path’ together.[3] These were predominantly a set of living principles one is committed to in remaining noble and virtuous to themselves and others. Comparatively I thought of them as being simpler forms of the virtues in Budo[4] or the Ten Commandments[5] in Judaism and the Beatitudes[6] in Jesus’ teachings on the Mount of Olives.

Over the next half hour the congregation followed several chants[7] much like the singing of hymns in the church. While Ken and James would lead the congregation into the chant, the rest would join in further into the practice. Notes and the pronunciations were in the liturgy book and once you settled into it, it was easy to follow along. At first it seemed to be rather broken in rhythm and synchronization but the further into the chanting, it seemed to begin to harmonize amidst all the congregations’ vocalizations. There seemed to be much like a unification that took place between each of the practitioners that eventually felt rather calming to me as an observer.

Ken also took a short amount of time to give a sort of conversational lesson. It wasn’t so much a sermon as it was an exploration of questions to the congregation into the proposed subject of “self” and how we find meaning in it. It felt a little disjointed as though he was having troubles articulating what he wanted to share but, in essence, Ken was addressing issues of understanding the self through levels of confidence, values for ourselves and others opinions, and the implications of having to much self which then becomes selfishness.

Remaining quiet out of respect, I felt the gospel leading my thoughts into the social understanding that we are known to ourselves only because we are first known by another. Particularly, it felt as though it would have been easy to enter the conversation with a question of “who first knew us?”

There were so many great conversations I remember having in my Aikido dojo in similar fashions; still, I remained quiet and following his teaching, Ken had everyone crowd together for a communal selfie picture before dismissing them.

Beautiful People and the Intertwining of the Communal Self

Rolling PinAfter the service, an older gentleman who was extremely friendly greeted me. We had a fantastic conversation as he shared a bit about the history of the temple and that the Buddhist community had been meeting in this house since 1980. He also shared a bit about the history of Buddhism here in Calgary as there has been a community of practitioners here since 1905. He stated that it was the first organized religion in the area although I found that hard to believe. I will most definitely need to look into this however as a narrative to YYC!

James and I also spoke for a while as he shared about the significance of the apple in front of the Buddha. He shared how it was customary to have an offering before the Buddha and traditionally it was a bowl of cooked rice. However, being that he didn’t cook rice all the time, he chose to westernize the expression with an apple. James also rationalized the gesture as that Buddha was a sensei (teacher) and as such, you bring an apple to your teacher in the hopes of good grades. All I could hear in the back of my mind was the irony of the image of the “forbidden fruit” being used as an offering and Paul’s words in Acts 17:25 that God does not need the service of human hands.

Leaving the temple everyone seemed enthusiastic for me to return. Although carefully making sure to have accessibility in their new building, it seems I was the first person in a wheelchair to come there. I was very grateful for their well wishes and while exiting was greeted by a young man named Chris.

Chris overheard me talking with James about my past in the martial arts and was intrigued. We spent the next 20 minutes on the way to the parking lot chatting and it turned out he knew an old friend from my Aikido dojo. We shared our experiences in the arts and said our good bye’s.

There was much I felt lacking spiritually in the morning’s events but there was also something about the thematic understandings of being known and the intertwining of both relationships and common desires for purpose, significance, virtue, and respect. I can’t say that I feel compelled to return to the temple for the reasons that I feel it wrong to have an image of creation before me in worship and I found myself restrained to bow to an idol.

Still, I feel compelled to bring the gospel and the conversation of the Kingdom into the realities of the virtues spoken of and I know that it is only going to happen through relational presence and the practice of proximity. As I have written and shared before, “How close or how far we find ourselves from any one person, place, or time is not as important as how we engage the possibility of movement towards or further away from them.[8] If it is not noticed yet, let me be open in saying, I have a heart for this culture and a love for these beautiful people. I do not yet know how God may bring this to be but, this experience has reminded me that I must seek and find a way to reengage with this community. To not do so would mean to have too much focus on my… self!









A Missional Hermeneutic Pt. #4 ~ Conclusion ~ Discovering a Communal Hermeneutic

Hearing the SpiritIt is by engaging in the mission of the church that we discover a hermeneutical understanding of Ecclesiology and the way we practice community. God’s word was not meant to be confined to the single interpretation of just one person but rather meant to speak through the communal practices of a community seeking understanding and living in the diversity of expression.

Bob Goudzwaard in his book Hope in Troubled Times describes the diversity of leadership through the image of a satellite. He writes,

Globalization is like a satellite launched into space by certain booster rockets, such as the emancipation of world trade, the information technology revolution, and the existence of a coherent international monetary system. Once it has reached its appropriate height, however, the satellite turns and circles the world autonomously under its own power or dynamic. It follows only its own orbit. And from that circuit, it exerts its increasingly powerful influence on the world.[1]

God’s Word catalyzes itself through all space and time, the meaning of which is found hermeneutically through the practice of communal sharing and interpretation. As Mark Love sees this diversity,

Biblical diversity is in part the product of faithful communities reflecting on the presence of God in a variety of circumstances. In turn, this means that these circumstances are not just cultural trappings to be shed for the sake of timeless truths. Rather, these circumstances are necessary aspects of the spectrum that comprises the biblical testimonies about God.[2]

The purpose to any hermeneutic is the seeking out and understanding of God’s Word as we live within the guides of the ancient text of scripture found in the Bible. As Paul pointed out to the people of Athens so many years ago, humanity’s greatest desire is in seeking, “God, [so that they might] perhaps feel their way toward him and find him.[3]

In another phrase, Mark Love puts it as; “The point of interpretation is not simply to uncover the “message” of a text, but to discern God’s identity and the particular shape of the call of God on our life together.[4]

God deeply desires to be a part of our life and it is through his word that each of us can find ourselves being drawn into the proximity of His movement in and through us. Through the practice of a missional hermeneutic we can find not just ink written on pages but rather a living, breathing, word of life that will forever change us and bring us new meaning.

[1] Bob Goudzwaard, Mark Vennen, and David Heemst, Hope in Troubled Times: A New Vision for Confronting Global Crises (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2007), 140.

[2] Mark Love, “Missional Interpretation: The Encounter of a Holy God through a Living Text,” (Paper presented at Rochester College, Rochester, MI., 5.

[3] The Holy Bible: English Standard Version. 2001 (Ac 17:27). Wheaton: Standard Bible Society.

[4] Mark Love, “Missional Interpretation: The Encounter of a Holy God through a Living Text,” (Paper presented at Rochester College, Rochester, MI., 6.

A Missional Hermeneutic Pt. #3 ~ Three Worlds Converging: Finding a Hermeneutical Practice in Context, Cultures, and the Gospel

Upside Down WorldOver the course of reading and taking into the accounts of the strengths in each of the past approaches, I recognized a convergence of viewing scripture within the worlds of Context, Culture, and the Gospel as their movements interacted with one another. Finding a hermeneutical understanding to the scriptures could not be separated from any of these elements and through them, God would speak timelessly to all people.


As Miroslav Volf recognizes, “In addition to having been written in the past, the Bible, to a great extent, tells stories about concrete events from the past.[1] We cannot dismiss the importance of recognizing the historical placement of these great narratives as well as the characters involved, the environments they take place in, the larger text to which they are a part of, and the time to which they take place.

Mark Love describes its importance as it, “bears the potentiality of bringing deeper and richer theological understanding, and, in turn, broadening our understanding of what God is doing in the world.[2]

Of course this understanding cannot dismiss the contextual account of relational placement today. Nor the reality that contexts are diverse and uniquely coexistent with a multitude of axis points to which the text speaks. Still, as James Brownson writes, “All of humanity is called to glorify God, not by suppressing diversity and particularity, but by sanctifying it.[3]

We are all uniquely part of a grand metanarrative to which God speaks. In this way we can take into account the context of scripture and find relational markers that build relevance to our understandings today.


Brownson points us in the direction that, “Each culture’s apprehension of God in scripture may be accurate but is always provisional, and that God is most fully known and glorified through a diversity of cultures and cultural perspectives.[4] It is in the understanding of traditions, rituals, politics, metaphors, anthropology, and language that the Biblical text can share a rich voice of God’s meaning and desire to communicate with his creation both in history and today.

Yet as Michael Gogheen points out, there is a danger in not taking into account the Biblical context of culture first before relationally tying it to today’s. He writes, “In the West, it is our culture’s story and its images, which have too often dominated the church’s sense of itself and informed its life. If the church is to recover its God-given identity and role in the world, it needs to be intentional about recovering the biblical story and its images.[5] If we solely base our understanding of scripture through the eyes of our cultural practices today, we run the risk of placing these images into an ideological pattern which eventually could lead to a idolatrous perpetuation, dismissing the role of God at the blinded arrogance of human religious control.

Taking into account the Biblical understanding of culture can lead us to an understanding of the root meaning and therefore allow God to speak diversely and creatively throughout all cultures. In James Brownson’s words, “The reality of God’s presence is at least potentially available within the symbolic world projected by any specific culture.[6]


Bridging the first two worlds into a paradigmatic relationship within itself, the gospel allows God’s Word to speak through first a Christological framework of authority as Hunsberger states, “It summons to allegiance and decision. (It makes a claim.) It presupposes a public horizon and universal scope. (It presents itself as world news.) It regards death and resurrection as paradigmatic. (It opens up a way.)[7]

Paul’s words in Philippians 2 come to mind as he writes, “Have this mind among yourselves, which is yours in Christ Jesus.[8] We must ask ourselves where we see the text as a whole being enfleshed in the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus. By this understanding we can move towards an understanding of Missiology.

Missiology is a recognition to the “sentness” each community and person has as being part of the mission of God in a particular place and a particular time. Brownson articulates that, “the gospel functions to bring about a fundamental transformation in a way people in a specific situation interpret the Christian tradition, understand themselves, and situate themselves in the world as a whole.[9] We must be drawn to action by the scripture as we see God’s desire for His people and world. As Jesus calls us, “seek first the kingdom of God and his righteousness, and all these things will be added to you.[10]

[1] Miroslav Volf, Captive to the Word: Engaging the Scriptures for Contemporary Theological Reflection. (Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2010), 16.

[2] Mark Love, “Missional Interpretation: The Encounter of a Holy God through a Living Text,” (Paper presented at Rochester College, Rochester, MI., 5.

[3] James V. Brownson, Speaking the Truth in Love: New Testament Resources for a Missional Hermeneutic (Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Trinity Press International, 1998), 21.

[4] Ibid., 23.

[5] Michael W. Goheen, A Light To The Nations: The Missional Church And The Biblical Story (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2011), 6.

[6] James V. Brownson, Speaking the Truth in Love: New Testament Resources for a Missional Hermeneutic (Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Trinity Press International, 1998), 22-23.

[7] George R. Hunsberger, “Proposal for a Missional Hermeneutic: Mapping a Conversation,”, 317.

[8] The Holy Bible: English Standard Version. 2001 (Php 2:5). Wheaton: Standard Bible Society.

[9] James V. Brownson, Speaking the Truth in Love: New Testament Resources for a Missional Hermeneutic (Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Trinity Press International, 1998), 54.

[10] The Holy Bible: English Standard Version. 2001 (Mt 6:33). Wheaton: Standard Bible Society.

A Missional Hermeneutic Pt. #2 ~ Foundations of Missional Artistry: Four Approaches to a Hermeneutical Practice

Keys to UnderstandingIn his ‘Proposal for a Missional Hermeneutic’ George Hunsberger present four streams of thought in a missional approach to hermeneutics. Each one holds to a vital emphases or point to finding meaning in the scriptures but may fall short in other areas of interpretation.

The first approach to defining a hermeneutic focuses on the writing of scripture as a whole collected work, while finding the central understanding on the story or mission of God throughout the completed text. Speaking from Christopher Wright’s approach, Hunsberger states that, “taken as a canonical whole, the Bible, he says, tells the story of God’s mission in and for the whole world, and with it the story of the people of God whom God has called and sent to be implicated in that mission.[1]

In this view, the biblical text as a whole is viewed as a narrative, which does not seem to leave much room for the expression of cultural metaphorical expression. Historically we know also that many of the first century Christians and their community’s did not have access to the whole of Christian scriptures as we find today in the canonized Bible. Do we then assume that they did not know or truly understand the Word of God? I do not think we can make that assessment.

Still, this view points us to the importance of recognizing the metanarrative voice to which scripture can speak to us. This of course extends into the greater picture of today as we call in our own narratives and ask where is God in the bigger picture.

The second approach Hunsberger identifies is the missional purpose of the writings of scripture. This is an approach that no doubt focuses out of Paul’s words to Timothy in saying, “All Scripture is breathed out by God and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness, that the man of God may be complete, equipped for every good work.[2] Quoting Darrell Guder as one of the main proponents, Hunsberger states, “The New Testament writings have as their purpose to equip the churches for witness.[3]

I would agree that the scriptures were written for equipping in service and mission however, we cannot dismiss their intrinsic value in the workings of the redemption and sanctification of the inner self we all are in search of. The power of transformation to which God speaks through the scriptures is one not just for the non-believer but for the believer taking part in it’s reading also!

Thirdly, Hunsberger distinguishes a hermeneutic stream in the missional locatedness of the reader. Speaking from the viewpoint of Michael Barram he describes it as, “the claim that ‘Christian congregations caught up in the missio Dei read the Bible from a social location characterized by mission’”[4]

Without a doubt, we must allow the scriptures to speak to us through the practice of community. The ecclesia in which the gospel speaks, shapes the enfleshing acts to which God’s Word molds people into the mission to which he has called them. And yet, we cannot dismiss the individual relationship each person has with his Word also. Just as God calls community to be in mission, he also calls each individual to be on mission and as such the scriptures continue to have a validity in the missional locatedness of every believer. As Alan Hirsch has pointed out, “Every church is a church planting church. Every believer is a church planter.[5]

The forth and last hermeneutic that Hunsberger identifies is in the missional engagement with cultures. This is largely reflected in James Brownson’s work as Hunsberger describes, “his model focuses on what is taking place in the missional moment as biblical writers address the people of their own times and places in terms of the received religious tradition.[6]

Mark Love sees this approach as offering a,

hermeneutical shift that does not begin with the relationship of the reader and the text, but that begins instead with the relationship between God and the biblical texts as we find them.[7] This is a shift that, “does not begin with the relationship of the reader and the text, but that begins instead with the relationship between God and the biblical texts as we find them… It’s not just the case that we read these texts. It is possible that these active texts can read us and re-describe our worlds.[8]

With this understanding, in approaching our own practice of reading scripture we should always begin with the question of, “In what way does this reveal the identity and character of God?” Followed by the secondary reflection of, “How does this revelation of God’s identity shape our understanding and call us into the creation of the world around us?

It is from these approaches that I have reflected on my own approach to hermeneutics and seen how the three worlds of Context, Culture, and the Gospel have converged to allow God’s Word to speak into life. It is these thoughts to which I will turn to in my next post.

“So, now we have a holy God and a living text, and these features should determine how the text performs among us. It would be a violation of both a holy God and a living text to treat the text as a lifeless object, or simply as a container for meanings that we can excise through the surgical use of critical approaches. Missional hermeneutics, or biblical hermeneutics in general, should proceed on the notion that these living texts generate meanings. It is not just that we read these texts. It is possible that these active texts can read us and re-describe our worlds” ~ Mark Love in ‘Missional Interpretation: The Encounter of a Holy God through a Living Text

[1] George R. Hunsberger, “Proposal for a Missional Hermeneutic: Mapping a Conversation,”, 311.

[2] The Holy Bible: English Standard Version. 2001 (2 Ti 3:16–17). Wheaton: Standard Bible Society.

[3] George R. Hunsberger, “Proposal for a Missional Hermeneutic: Mapping a Conversation,”, 313.

[4] Ibid., 314.

[5] Alan Hirsch, “Alan Hirsch: Every Believer a Church Planter”, Verge Network, Web, (, 2011).

[6] George R. Hunsberger, “Proposal for a Missional Hermeneutic: Mapping a Conversation,”, 316-317.

[7] Mark Love, “Missional Interpretation: The Encounter of a Holy God through a Living Text,” (Paper presented at Rochester College, Rochester, MI., 3.

[8] Ibid., 3-4.

A Missional Hermeneutic Pt. #1 – Hearing and Understanding the Voice of God

Listening to GodIn the very deepest parts of our human nature, it is our desire to know, hear, and understand the voice of our creator. After all, we were created in his image and in that reflection he spoke to us and blessed us saying, “Be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth and subdue it, and have dominion over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the heavens and over every living thing that moves on the earth.[1] But fruitfulness and dominion need meaning and understanding and this is why hermeneutics are so important as without them, we are left in a pit of noise, deafened by our own ignorance and arrogant pride.

For this reason I am reflecting on the importance of understanding a missional hermeneutic to the Christian Holy scriptures, the different approaches taken, and how I might see my hermeneutic taking shape in understanding the Word of God.

As George Hunsberger describes, a hermeneutical understanding has for a long time been discussed and yet no formal practice or consensus has been agreed upon. He states that,

On the one hand, there seemed to be some sharp differences emerging between the various proposals being made about what a missional hermeneutic is. As both participant and observer, it seemed to me that we had not achieved a uniform definition, and perhaps not even a uniform way to pose the question.[2]

Of course if we are to truly understand the question of hermeneutics, we must be willing to ask who the inquisitor is. For what reason was scripture written? And in what way do we understand God’s existence in writing such texts?

Perhaps in a similar way, this is the same approach Mark Love was purposing in his Paper ‘Missional Interpretations’ as he writes:

“It is my contention that anything that passes for a missional hermeneutic should focus on the use of the text in communities pursuing the questions, “To what is God calling us?” and “With whom are we to share in God’s mission?” These questions are properly framed when hermeneutics is defined less around the relationship between reader and text, and more around the relationship between God and text. By this, I mean that both the biblical testimonies concerning the identity of God and the actual phenomenon of Scripture must be brought into meaningful relationship. In other words, “who is God?” and “how can this particular collection of texts correspond to God’s identity?” are the orienting questions that frame a missional hermeneutic.”[3]

It is because of these questions that it is so important to understand and define a missional hermeneutic so that through there exploration, we might know greater how to hear the Words of our creator through the text of Christian scripture and how they speak amidst our own daily lives.

[1] The Holy Bible: English Standard Version. 2001 (Ge 1:28). Wheaton: Standard Bible Society.

[2] George R. Hunsberger, “Proposal for a Missional Hermeneutic: Mapping a Conversation,”, 309-310.

[3] Mark Love, “Missional Interpretation: The Encounter of a Holy God through a Living Text,” (Paper presented at Rochester College, Rochester, MI., 1.

Listening for the Language of Peace

Peace and IslamAs-Salaam Aliakum. So often I think we hear these words today and the hairs on the back of our necks rise as images from Paris, Syria, and Iraq flash in our minds. Is this not a Muslim greeting?!

Wa-Aliakum Salaam. I hear it shared in response while I sit in the barber’s chair at my local neighborhood men’s barber shop. Mo has cut my hair for the last 6 years and we have developed an amazing relationship. We’ve spoke about his family, his kids and there schooling, his 5-year-old son (now 8 years old) who is dealing with Leukemia. I passed along comfort and gave financially to his family while I told him of my prayers for him when he went through a massive heart attack a little over a year ago. And yes, we have deep discussions about faith, Jesus, and the stories of scripture both in the Bible and the Qur’an. Mo is a devoted Muslim and highly intelligent while being a deeply peace giving spiritual man. Yet even then, when I hear those words shared between him and an incoming customer; I think in the back of my head of the extremely sharp edged and pointed scissors in his hands!

Peace Be Unto You! What does it mean to be a peace keeper in a world that doesn’t understand the language of peace?! Where we allow images of violence and hatred and bigotry to shape the policies and reactions of our nations and even neighborhoods?! When our own online activities of typed out words, posted banners, and shared videos profess a great divide between our brother and us… our sister… according to the way we dress, worship, or seek meaning and purpose… All while in the face to face we are preaching a message of loving our neighbor as ourselves and smiling while waving at them from the safety of our rolled up car window!

And Unto You Peace! Over and over the passed few weeks my brother John’s words have spoken to me, “People want to know what you are for; not what you are against!” I know they have been borrowed from others but, there is something about the power of relationship that just bring those words in a tone, a pitch, that seems so more commanding from a brother who has ate at the same table as me, prayed while weeping over personal struggles, given of themselves to bring blessing to my life, and forgiven me for wrongs that no one else has ever known!

The language of a person of peace seems not to have a linguistic barrier that restricts it from culture, religion, our nationality. The language of peace is built upon the power and significance of our relationships to the other; no matter how different. It is a language of communal embrace!

May this be my meditative prayer for peace in the world over the coming weeks ahead… “I have said these things to you, that in me you will have peace. In the world you will have tribulation. But take heart; I have overcome the world.” (John 16:33)

Gleaning Through Three Stages of the Enlightenment While Contemplating the Great “I Am”

The Enlightenment“Common sense is the best distributed commodity in the world, for every man is convinced that he is well supplied with it. Cogito, ergo sum.” (I think, therefore I am.) Or at least Rene Descartes thought so as reflected on the age of Enlightenment. With systematic sciences on the rise, the world was changing and humanity’s perspectives on the church, human nature, and God were being revolutionarily transformed by three natural perspectives.

The first of which was the voice of reason or what Platchard called natural religion. This ideological understanding dichotomized “between ‘natural religion’, the basic truths about the existence of God and human morality known to good people in all societies, and ‘revealed religion’, the particular historical claims and doctrines of Christianity and other religions.” (Pg. #240) With science putting systematic categorical placements on everything in nature, the Enlightenment would redefine the gospel outside of the nature of purpose and, in Bosch’s language, turn God into the object for the equal consumption of all as apposed to the subject of relation to the elected few. He writes, “Reason represented a heritage that belonged not only to ‘believers’, but to all human beings in equal measure.” (Pg. #270)

To the believer who dedicated their life to God, reason alone was not articulated enough to express the uniqueness of their relationship to the one true God. The gospel must be “born again” to transcend the simplistic rationalizations of common man. The mystical wondering of an outside Kingdom breaking into the world with the promise of liberation must still evoke the emotions of the heart and overcome the ideological expectations of cause and effect with a spirit of grace. Alas, to think religiously and to live by faith became institutionalized even more through the development of contextualized segmented religious cultures that rather retreated from the world as apposed to transforming the world.

With one voice rationalizing religion as an “opiate to the masses” and the other retreating into institutionalized segregated commonwealths, a third voice was piecing the gospel pursuit in the sojourning life long pilgrimage for the revelation of objective truth. As Gotthold Lessing expressed, “The worth of a man does not consist in the truth he possesses, or thinks he possesses, but in the pains he has taken to attain that truth… If God held all truth in his right hand and in his left the everlasting striving after truth… and said to me, ‘Choose’, with humility I would pick on the left hand and say, ‘Father grant me that. Absolute truth is for thee alone.” (Pg. #250) Alas, as Bosch points out, all to often enabled “humans to remake the world [and God] in their own image and according to their own design.” (Pg. #273)

Returning to Descartes and “Cogito, ergo sum”. As the Enlightenment boxed the gospel into a mental rhythm of simple knowledge and academic exercise, we must peer deeper into the depths of our calling in discipleship. It is not to think that reflects who I am but, it is for the purpose to enflesh the great “I am” that I exist! (John 14:6)